Society’s poorest, most marginalised and excluded people have little say on the triple crisis of climate change, nature’s degradation and poverty; yet they are most affected by it. Climate finance is a key resource to help them deal with the impacts of this crisis.

The Paris Agreement provides a foundation for the most robust climate change transparency system to date, requesting countries to provide information on their progress to adaptation targets. Linking up country-led and global M&E systems can be mutually beneficial.

This paper examines international, national and municipal mechanisms for financing adaptation, and reveals the systemic barriers that prevent money being channelled into the hands of low-income and highly vulnerable urban residents in low- and middle-income countries, and hinder effective urban adaptation.

Sustainable development in countries like Nepal, where 44 % of the population do not have access to electricity is now closely linked to access to energy. This country report looks at the status of the Scaling up Renewable Energy Programme (SREP) in Nepal.