Understanding the determinants of improved agricultural technology adoption is an important component of increasing agricultural productivity and incomes of smallholders to reduce poverty and hunger, which are the top two Sustainable Development Goals.

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) has been promoted since 2011 to increase productivity, improve resilience to climate variability and change and reduce greenhouse gas emission, where feasible, in farming systems globally and especially in Sub-Saharan Africa.

‘Climate-smart agriculture’ (CSA)—agriculture and food systems that sustainably increase food production, improve resilience (or adaptive capacity) of farming systems, and mitigate climate change when possible—has quickly been integrated into the global development agenda.