This report gives an overview of current practices, challenges and opportunities in the measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of livestock greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and emission reductions by developing countries in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration on agricultural land decreases the costs of climate change mitigation while promoting increased food security. SOC has the potential to sequester up to 3.5 GtCO2eq/yr by 2050 in a scenario consistent with 1.5 ºC warming.

Carbon price policies deliver cost-efficient mitigation across sectors, but can result in tradeoffs with food security and other sustainable development goals. Scenarios for a 1.5 °C world based on carbon prices could increase the undernourished population by 80 - 300 million in 2050.

As many countries are increasing commitments to address climate change, national governments are exploring how they could best reduce the impact of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agriculture is a major contributor to GHG emissions, especially in developing countries, where this sector accounts for an average of 35% of all GHG emissions.

Agriculture in tropical developing countries produces about 7–9 % of annual anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and contributes to additional emissions through land-use change. At the same time, nearly 70 % of the technical mitigation potential in the agricultural sector occurs in these countries.

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture comprise 10-12% of anthropocentric global emissions; and 76% of the agricultural emissions are generated in the developing world. Landscape GHG accounting is an effective way to efficiently develop baseline emissions and appropriate mitigation approaches.

This report proposes a gender strategy for climate change mitigation and the promotion of low emissions agriculture— the focus of CCAFS Theme 3: Pro-Poor Climate Change Mitigation.

New agricultural development pathways are required to meet climate change adaptation and mitigation needs in the food systems of low-income countries. A research and policy agenda is provided to indicate where innovation and new knowledge are needed.

As developing countries prepare commitments to mitigation activities in agriculture, investments should be guided by a thorough understanding of the appropriate incentives to encourage farmers to innovate and adopt new mitigation practices.

The report relies on interviews with 32 key respondents highlighting the need for action in the areas of: policy making; implementation mechanisms and governance; monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV); finance; capacity strengthening; and co-benefits.

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