Agricultural GHG emissions are predominately in the form of CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O), CO2, and black carbon. Methane and black carbon are both SLCPs. Black carbon emissions can be caused by the burning of biomass (such as crop residues) and from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels.
Transforming food systems under a changing climate entails amplifying solutions that build sustainability along multiple interconnected principles—i.e., diversity, resilience, equity, economic viability, health and renewability.
Agricultural production in East Africa is mainly rain-fed, making it highly sensitive and vulnerable to increased climate variability arising from climate change (EAC 2017a). Climate vulnerability is also exacerbated by reduced produce quality, land degradation, declining soil fertility and imperfect insurance and credit markets.
Low-emission dairy development interventions need to support resilience at farm level and across the value chain. The COVID-19 lockdown in Kenya led to increased prices of hay and concentrates, resulting in increased production costs for farmers.
About 2 million rural households in Kenya produce milk. With about 1800 liters per cow and year, average annual milk production per cow on smallholder dairy farms is low. As a result, production costs per kilogram of milk are high, and profit margins for many farmers are slim.
Although agriculture accounts for only 8.2% of the Republic of Zambia’s gross domestic product (GDP), almost half of the country’s economically active population works in the sector. Climate change poses a grave risk to the growth and sustainability of Zambian agricul ture.
In the United Republic of Tanzania, CSA has rapidly become a key mechanism for addressing both climate change and food security. Since 2011 more than nine CSA-related policies, programmes and projects have been implemented by the government and development partners. Outcomes from CSA projects, however, have not yet been tracked or reported on.