Global climate change will likely add pressure to international, national and sub-national security due to its nature as a threat multiplier. The energy system is at the heart of this challenge. On the one hand, two thirds of global emissions come from burning fossil fuels.
Forests in low and middle-income countries are at the centre of climate change mitigation efforts. But these forests are also areas of high levels of insecurity and are found in fragile states with weak governance, especially over forestlands. Nations affected by conflict hold 40 per cent of the world’s tropical forests.
Agricultural GHG emissions are predominately in the form of CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O), CO2, and black carbon. Methane and black carbon are both SLCPs. Black carbon emissions can be caused by the burning of biomass (such as crop residues) and from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels.
Transforming food systems under a changing climate entails amplifying solutions that build sustainability along multiple interconnected principles—i.e., diversity, resilience, equity, economic viability, health and renewability.
Agricultural production in East Africa is mainly rain-fed, making it highly sensitive and vulnerable to increased climate variability arising from climate change (EAC 2017a). Climate vulnerability is also exacerbated by reduced produce quality, land degradation, declining soil fertility and imperfect insurance and credit markets.
Low-emission dairy development interventions need to support resilience at farm level and across the value chain. The COVID-19 lockdown in Kenya led to increased prices of hay and concentrates, resulting in increased production costs for farmers.
About 2 million rural households in Kenya produce milk. With about 1800 liters per cow and year, average annual milk production per cow on smallholder dairy farms is low. As a result, production costs per kilogram of milk are high, and profit margins for many farmers are slim.