Farmers in East Africa are experiencing increasing livelihood challenges attributed to increasing scarcity of agricultural land, steep rises in food prices, deteriorating soil fertility and associated declining crop yields, poor market access and, in some cases unclear land tenure systems (Yamano et al. 2011).

Engaging youth in agriculture is increasingly being recognized as a critical component of the sustainable development pathway. Worldwide, there is growing concern that young people have become disenchanted with agriculture.

Smallholder farmers in Africa are especially vulnerable to climate fluctuations and weather extremes, and are expected to suffer disproportionately from climate change.

Collective action has led to increased agricultural investments, and provided an avenue for dissemination of climate-smart technologies. Cereal–legume intercrop innovations offer farmers multiple benefits that contribute to increased farm resilience, greater food security and better incomes.

Several African countries are proactively putting in place policies and strategies for climate change adaptation and mitigation in agriculture at national and local levels.

Climate change is a major development challenge to Ethiopia. Climate change is expected to adversely affect all economic sectors, eco-regions, and social groups. Agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors as it is highly dependent on rainfall.