This document assesses the current state of practice for the representation of food security indicators in agricultural systems models and provides recommendations for improvements in both model formulation and the empirical evidence base underlying it.

The UNFCCC’s Koronivia Joint Work on Agriculture creates an opening for agroforestry to take on an important role in Africa’s response to climate change.

An estimated 1.06 million hectare of arable land in Bangladesh and 6.7 million hectares in India is affected by salinity. Salinity intrusion adversely affects the livelihoods of farmers, especially rice cultivators and fisherfolks, vegetations, soil quality, and infrastructure in these areas.

About half of developing countries express ambition to use agroforestry—the integration of trees with crops, livestock and other non-forest timber products—for adaptation and mitigation of climate change.

The carbon footprint of food loss and waste (FLW) is estimated to be up to 3.49 gigatons of carbon dioxide equivalent (gtCO2e), representing up to 6-10% of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Reducing FLW can reduce the emission intensity of agricultural production.

The climate-smart agriculture (CSA) concept reflects an ambition to improve the integration of agricultural development and climate responsiveness. It aims to achieve food security and broader development goals under a changing climate and increasing food demand.


This brochure highlights the aspects of a project collaboration between CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) South Asia and a private sector giant in India, ITC Limited.

Climate change is projected to have serious impacts on the agriculture of southern Africa, affecting food availability, creating local production shortfalls and resulting in rising commodity prices. This report highlights the risks to agriculture and food systems that may occur in two counties of the region, Malawi and Zambia.

The Asian monsoon plays a major role in the variability of seasonal temperature and precipitation and the sub-seasonal statistics of these and other climate variables.

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