The observed warming of the surface air temperature (SAT) over the last 50 years has not been homogenous. There are strong differences in the temperature changes both geographically and on different time frames. Here, we review the observed diurnal asymmetry in the global warming trend: the night-time temperatures have increased more rapidly than day-time temperatures. Several explanations for this asymmetric warming have been offered in the literature.

This paper presents key results from analysis of surface meteorological observations collected in the Northern Arabian/Persian Gulf (N Gulf; Kuwait, Bahrain, and NE Saudi Arabia), which spans a 40-years period (1973–2012). The first part of this study analyzes climate variability in the N Gulf, and relates them to teleconnection patterns (North Atlantic Oscillation, El Nino Southern Oscillation, and Indian Ocean Dipole).

Policymakers, governments and aid agencies require operational environmental monitoring in support of evidence-based policy-making and resource deployment in crisis situations. For Africa, this is only feasible at sub-continental scale with a large network of automated meteorological stations, a large number of highly coordinated field observers or with satellite remote sensing. The challenge with satellite data lies in the derivation of meaningful environmental indicators.

Frontal convection (FC) and diurnal convection (DC) are the two most frequently observed weather systems affecting the pre-summer (May and June, MJ) rainfall formation over Taiwan and Southeast China. Focusing on the time period of 1982–2012 MJ months, this study found that the occurrence frequency of FC has declined, but the occurrence frequency of DC has significantly increased over Taiwan and Southeast China. Diagnoses of the atmospheric thermodynamic conditions over the East Asian–Western North Pacific (EAWNP) region indicate that the area favourable for the FC formation (i.e.

Rainfall records for 23 countries and territories in the western Pacific have been collated for the purpose of examining trends in total and extreme rainfall since 1951. For some countries this is the first time that their data have been included in this type of analysis and for others the number of stations examined is more than twice that available in the current literature. Station trends in annual total and extreme rainfall for 1961–2011 are spatially heterogeneous and largely not statistically significant.

Simulations from six global climate models participating in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 are used to project future changes in regional early spring (February–April) temperature and in cherry (Prunus yedoensis) first-flowering date (FFD) over South Korea in order to investigate a potential plant growth response to local climate change. For the study, we statistically downscale daily Historical (1986–2005), RCP4.5 (2071–2090), and RCP8.5 (2071–2090) gridded model data to 59 cherry FFD observation sites over South Korea.

In operational meteorology, forecasting heavy rainfall (HRF) events has been a long‐standing challenge in India. This is especially true in certain regions where the physical geography lends itself to the creation of such HRF events. Northeast India (NEI) is one such region within the Asian monsoon zone, which receive very HRF during the pre‐monsoon and summer monsoon season and the summer–autumn transition month of October. These events cause flooding, damage crops and bring life to standstill. In the present work, the characteristics of HRF events in NEI are studied.

Hourly rainfall data recorded at 72 Self Recording Raingauge Stations (SRRG) for the period 1969–2006 are utilized to study the characteristic features of hourly rainfall and diurnal variations of rainfall in India. Temporal changes in the short duration (less than 12 h) rainfall extremes are examined. Time distribution of a heavy rain spell of 24 h duration, which is an important component in water resources management and flood control studies, is analysed.