Motorcycles are a dominant form of transport in many cities, especially throughout Asia. This Sourcebook describes the challenges of this trend and provides an overview on measures to counter the rising emissions from two-stroke two-and three-wheelers in developing cities.

As a first-time effort in India, the Green Vehicle Rating (GVR) serves as a consumer information tool that identifies high to low performing vehicle models in 2 & 3-wheeler categories, in terms of the negative impacts of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants released from the tail pipe.

The number of electric and plug-in hybrid cars on the world’s roads exceeded 3 million in 2017, a 54% increase compared with 2016, according to the latest edition of the International Energy Agency’s Global Electric Vehicles Outlook. China remained by far the largest electric car market in the world, accounting for half sold last year.

The number of electric cars on the roads around the world rose to 2 million in 2016, following a year of strong growth in 2015, according to the latest edition of the International Energy Agency’s Global EV Outlook. China remained the largest market in 2016, accounting for more than 40% of the electric cars sold in the world.

Order of the National Green Tribunal in the matter of Vardhaman Kaushik Vs. Union of India & Others dated 31/05/2016 regarding rising air pollution in cities of India. NGT directs the States to provide information on two or more most polluted cities in the States and also vehicular population.

Order of the National Green Tribunal in the matter of K. Manoharan Vs. Union of India & Ors. dated 28/04/2016 regarding growing air pollution in NCT of Delhi caused by vehicles.

Questions are raised regarding plying of 2 stroke engine fitted auto rickshaws and introduction of new category vehicle- quadricycle to contain the increasing pollution levels. Tribunal directs Joint Secretary of MoEF, Govt. of India and Member Secretary of CPCB to remain present on the next date of hearing if the response to the questions are not filed.

Order of the National Green Tribunal (Western Zone Bench, Pune) in the matter of New Link Road Residents Forum & Others Vs. The Union of India & Others dated 01/03/2016 regarding pollution caused by two-stroke engines in auto rickshaws in Mumbai.

This Application raises the issue of granting permits to new Auto Rickshaws and re-issuing permits to allow old Auto Rickshaws on the ground of increasing environmental pollution. Counsel appearing on behalf of MPCB submits that reply to this Application is necessary and will be filed within two weeks.

Order of the National Green Tribunal in the matter of K. Manoharan Vs. Union of India & Ors. dated 26/02/2016 regarding regarding growing air pollution in NCT of Delhi caused by vehicles, 26/02/2016.

The Ministry of Environment & Forest, & CC and Central Pollution Control Board shall constitute appropriate teams immediately and submit Report in relation to two stroke engine in two-wheeler and threewheeler and any other vehicle which is using oil along with petrol.

The Indian Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas has been considering the possibility of leapfrogging from Bharat Stage (BS) IV emission standards in April 2017 to BS VI emission standards in April 2020. The Parliamentary Committee on Petroleum and Natural Gas has endorsed the idea.

Order of the National Green Tribunal (Western Zone Bench, Pune) in the matter of New Link Road Residents Forum & Others Vs. The Union of India & Others dated 13/10/2014 regarding pollution caused by two-stroke engines in auto rickshaws, Mumbai, Maharashtra.

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