Global studies of the health impacts of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have been based on particle mass, but there is evolving evidence indicating that adverse health effects can vary depending on the source and composition of PM2.5.

The underlying goal of this book is to facilitate and stimulate sharing of information on these phenomena and to provide an interdisciplinary framework for bringing about improved environmental conditions in Sindh.

Pakistan’s population is growing and becoming more urbanized. By 2020, Karachi and Lahore will each have a population of well over 10 million people and several other cities will have a population of at least one million. These trends offer both risks and opportunities.

Air pollution in Pakistan’s urban centers is among the most severe in the world. Every year, it results in more than 20 thousand premature deaths among adults and in almost five million cases of illnesses among young children in Pakistan. In addition, urban air pollution affects the quality of life and the economy and environment of Pakistan.