This report is the background document providing the basis for the Cooling Emissions and Policy Synthesis Report by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the International Energy Agency (IEA) that is being published simultaneously.

The Kosi River corridor is situated in the Nainital and Almora districts of Uttarakhand and connects the Corbett Tiger Reserve with the forests of Ramnagar Forest Division. This corridor serves as a vital link between the source population of tigers in Corbett and the adjoining forest areas and enables them to move across.

This report discusses the need to balance short-term water productivity gains, particularly in agriculture, with water flows’ long-term role in maintaining sustainable landscape ecosystem services and supporting human well-being.

Protected area integration entails a two-fold process. The first involves linking protected areas within a broader network of protected and managed lands and waters in order to maintain ecological processes, functions and services. The second involves incorporating protected area design and management into

Good water management is a much broader issue than supply of freshwater to thirsty populations. Ecosystems and biodiversity, agriculture and food security, land use and forestry, human health and sanitation, settlements and infrastructure, industry and energy all depend on good water management.

As governments struggle with a sudden crisis caused by significant and rapid increases in the price of food, a companion crisis in availability of water also threatens billions of people. A hidden problem behind the food crisis is that as much as half of all food grown is lost or wasted before and after it reaches the consumer. And this wasted food is wasted water too. To meet the challenge of feeding growing populations and the global hungry, massive reductions in the amount of food wasted after production are needed.