MANY years of regulatory neglect have resulted in a growing disquiet towards mining in India. Distributive and environmental conflicts are evident in many mineral states. State collusion with the mining industry supports the view that the government does not always reflect the interest of the people. National and local regulatory frames are often in conflict.

Climate change requires us to move away from traditional thinking of sovereign states and boundaries, to cross-border cooperation and thinking of the commons and equitable sharing of ecological or carbon space.

While natural resources are spatially located, their development is of a wider national interest. Gains from their development accrue to a large common market though the process affects local lives and environments. The distribution of powers and functions across levels of government and the way they play out determine the effectiveness with which various policy goals are met.

Tourism plays an important role in the economies of both Goa and the Maldives. For the Maldives, it provides 17 percent of the gross domestic product, over 25 percent of government revenue and around 60 percent of the foreign exchange earnings; and for Goa, it generates 13.7 percent of the state