Long-term energy scenarios have become an essential tool for policy makers to guide the clean energy transition. Energy scenarios produced are varied, leading to an abundance of insights and technology combinations.

This report presents a synthesis of Bangladesh’s solar irrigation policies, highlights the current issues faced by the energy and groundwater sector in the context of solar irrigation, and describes how the SDC-SoLAR (Swiss Development Corporation-Solar Irrigation for Agricultural Resilience) project led by the International Water Management Ins

This study evaluates the feasibility of green hydrogen-based steelmaking [hydrogen-based direct reduced iron (H-DRI) & electric arc furnace (EAF)] in India by providing insights into the techno-economics and associated environmental benefits. It considers four-time horizons: 2020 (current), 2030 (medium-term), and 2040 to 2050 (long-term).

For decades, the object of international climate governance has been greenhouse gases, standardised to tonnes of carbon dioxide-equivalent. The ongoing inadequacy of decarbonisation efforts based on this system has prompted calls to expand the scope of international climate governance to include restrictions on the supply of fossil fuels.

The extraction and processing of raw materials are associated with potentially significant environmental impacts, including contributing to approximately half of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally.

This briefing paper explains how policymakers can account for well-to-wake (WTW) carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions in strategies that aim to monitor or regulate climate-warming pollutants from ships. Well-to-wake emissions, or life-cycle emissions, are the sum of upstream (well-to-tank) and downstream (tank-to-wake) emissions.

This study develops a plant-level, technical-specific, and time-series global refinery CO2 emission inventory, covering 1,056 refineries from 2000 to 2018.

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Taxing coal is a simple and effective means to promote a clean energy transition in Indonesia, and the experience of India demonstrates that it is politically and economically feasible.

The estimated economic value of post-harvest losses in India was INR 926.51 billion (USD 15.19 billion) in 2014. While this is an underestimation of overall food loss and waste in India, India ranks only 94th out of 107 countries on the 2020 Global Hunger Index.

Agricultural GHG emissions are predominately in the form of CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O), CO2, and black carbon. Methane and black carbon are both SLCPs. Black carbon emissions can be caused by the burning of biomass (such as crop residues) and from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels.