Smallholder agriculture has made an increasing use of subsidized mechanization and energy inputs to reduce short-term risks in semi-arid conditions in north west India. However, geographic patterns of production and scale of mechanization are straining resources and increasing the risk of serious degradation of natural resources. In this paper, the possibility of maximizing the revenue and energy returns in the agricultural sector at village level to fulfil the food, fuel and feed requirements of the village has been attempted.

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Small hydro power projects have been launched under the Rural Energy Development Programme in Sindhupalchok district of , Nepal. The main objective of the programme is to raise the living standards

Fluidised bed technology could help meet all power needs of a village

Does rural fuelwood use and more generally rural biomass use cause forest degradation? This question has been debated in scientific and policy circles. The author presents a framework for defining degradation and sustainable use of forests that might help clarify some of the confusion.