We undertook an economic valuation of mangrove forests in Balochistan province of Pakistan drawing on primary data from a survey of 80 households depending on mangrove forests. It was found that the direct value of mangroves was USD 1,287 per hectare, while the total value for the village was calculated to be USD 4,419,935.

Market-based approaches to environmental management, such as payment for environmental services (PES), have attracted unprecedented attention during the past decade.

This report assess the role social differences such as caste, and other household characteristics, play on leadership and collective action, taking the case studies of forest commons. Primary data for the analysis was drawn from a survey of eight community forest user groups in the mid-hills of Nepal.