Residues of pharmaceuticals are increasingly detected in surface waters throughout the world.In four streams in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, we detected analgesics, stimulants, antihistamines, andantibiotics using passive organic samplers. We exposed biofilm communities in these streams to the com-mon drugs caffeine, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, and diphenhydramine.

Original Source

Timber is frequently salvage-logged following high-severity stand-replacing wildfire, but the practice is controversial. One concern is that compound disturbances could result in more deleterious impacts than either disturbance individually, with mechanical operations having the potential to set back recovering native species and increase invasion by non-native species.

Many U.S. national parks are already at the extreme warm end of their historical temperature distributions. With rapidly warming conditions, park resource management will be enhanced by information on seasonality of climate that supports adjustments in the timing of activities such as treating invasive species, operating visitor facilities, and scheduling climate-related events (e.g., flower festivals and fall leaf-viewing).

In arid and semi-arid regions, grassland degradation has become a major environmental and economic problem, but little information is available on the response of grassland productivity to both climate change and grazing intensity. By developing a grazing module in a process-based ecosystem model, the dynamic land ecosystem model (DLEM), we explore the roles of climate change, elevated CO2, and varying grazing intensities in affecting aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) across different grassland sites in Mongolia.

Since the middle of the 20th century, the Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) has been poached for its wool to make luxury shawls, shahtoosh. This direct overexploitation caused a drastic decline in their population, with a loss of more than 90% compared to the baseline population a few decades ago. Assuming this is an anthropogenic Allee effect (AAE), human attraction for rarity can drive rare species to extinction, which could explain the increasing rates of antelope harvests, paralleling the escalating prices of shahtoosh as the species got rarer.

Wildlife diseases can present significant threats to ecological systems and biological diversity, as well as domestic animal and human health. However, determining the dynamics of wildlife diseases and understanding the impact on host populations is a significant challenge. In Hawai‘i, there is ample circumstantial evidence that introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) has played an important role in the decline and extinction of many native forest birds.