Climate during 2012 was warm in respect of temperature. Annual mean temperature anomaly for the country as a whole during the year 2012 was +0.49oC above the 1961-1990 period average making it the eighth warmest year on record since 1901.

This year, the arrival of southwest monsoon current over the south Bay of Bengal and south Andaman Sea was delayed by 3 days due to non-conducive conditions for the development of convection over the region and it set in over the region on 23rd May.

Knowledge of mean rainfall and its variability of smaller spatial scale are important for the planners in various sectors including water and agriculture.

A consensus outlook for the 2012 southwest monsoon rainfall over South Asia was developed, through an expert assessment of the available indications.
The outlook was prepared based on the various prevailing global climate conditions and forecasts from different empirical and dynamical climate models. It

Climate during 2011 was relatively moderate in respect of both temperature and precipitation. Although the year ranked ninth warmest since 1901 there were less heat wave events during the peak summer months. Southwest monsoon season rainfall for the country as a whole was normal. However, it was marked with large spatial variability.

The studies of UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme) indicated that, over the preceding 20 years, the problem of land degradation had continued to worsen due to human activities and climate change such as prolonged or frequent droughts aggravating land degradation.

The occurrences of some exceptionally very heavy rainfall during the recent years and causing flash floods in many areas forced to study the long term changes in extreme rainfall over India.

This publication by Indian Meteorological Department, Pune contains studies with latest data on various aspects of important weather / climate systems viz. Monsoons, Cyclone, Drought, Floods and observational weather / climate mechanism in India.

In this new study IMD examines district-wise and all India drought climatology over India for southwest monsoon season using using Percent of Normal(PN) & Standardized Precipitation Index(SPI).Compares drought climatology based on SPI with that based on PN to show that SPI is a better index for monitoring drought conditions over smaller spatial scales like districts, subdivisions etc.

The 2009 southwest monsoon recorded the third highest deficient
all India southwest monsoon season rainfall (-22% of LPA) during
the period 1901-2009. All the monsoon months except July
recorded large deficient rainfall. Region wise, except south
Peninsula, all other homogeneous regions recorded much below
normal rainfall. Activity of depression was below normal with

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