Shifting cultivation is commonly perceived as a primitive agricultural practice, economically unviable and a cause of tropical deforestation and environmental degradation.

The varied agro-climatic conditions of the transboundary Kangchenjunga Landscape support rich agrobiodiversity. However, despite its tremendous social, economic, and ecological significance, agrobiodiversity has been declining in the landscape in recent years.

Critical climate stress moments may be defined as those moments when households, communities, and their livelihood systems are vulnerable to climate related risks and hazards.

Managing water resources is a critical challenge in the mountain and hill regions of the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH).

Managing water resources is a critical challenge in the mountain and hill regions of the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH).

Freshwater ecosystems cover only 0.8% of the earth’s surface, but they are amongst the most diverse systems in the world. They are vital for the life and well-being of billions of people as they provide different direct and indirect services.

Springs are the most important source of water for millions of people in the mid-hills of the Himalaya. Both rural and urban communities depend on springs for meeting their drinking, domestic, and agricultural water needs.

Changes in the economic and natural environment have a significant impact on women wherein they are found to be at a disadvantage due to gender-based discrimination and bias.

This synthesis report summarizes findings from a participatory assessment of socio-economic drivers, conditions, and climatic and environmental stresses leading to different levels of vulnerabilities in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region.

This First HKH Assessment Report consists of 16 chapters, which comprehensively assess the current state of knowledge of the HKH region, increase the understanding of various drivers of change and their impacts, address critical data gaps and develop a set of evidence-based and actionable policy solutions and recommendations.

Pages