Mangrove ecosystems are threatened by climate change. We review the state of knowledge of mangrove vulnerability and responses to predicted climate change and consider adaptation options. Based on available evidence, of all the climate change outcomes, relative sea-level rise may be the greatest threat to mangroves. Most mangrove sediment surface elevations are not keeping pace with sea-level rise, although longer term studies from a larger number of regions are needed.

Most climate change models predict that this global phenomenon will have severe impacts on small farmers, particularly in developing countries. Increasing temperatures, droughts, heavy precipitation and other extreme climatic events could reduce yields by up to 50 percent in some regions, especially in drylands.

This report examines the development dilemma that India faces. India has an extremely large economy and a rapid rate of economic growth, so will emit large amounts of GHG. However, the population overall is very poor, and development will require access to basic energy services; meanwhile the Government is Very nervous of taking on costly decarbonisation commitments.

Level of urbanization has been increasing in India since the last five decades. This trend is likely to continue in the near future. More people will become city residents, increased number of people will have to necessarily live on a limited amount of developed land. In this context, people will demand more housing and everything else associated with urban living including modern physical and social infrastructure. These facilities will be provided with intense use of technology. This urban condition could have devastating climatic and sustainability consequences.

Higher atmospheric CO2 concentration may influence positively plant production once the substrate for photosynthesis and gradient increase between the ambient air and mesophyll cells.

In the years 2004 and 2005 the researchers collected samples of phytoplankton, zooplankton and macroinvertebrates in an artificial small pond in Budapest. They set up a simulation model predicting the abundance of the cyclopoids, Eudiaptomus zachariasi and Ischnura pumilio by considering only

Agriculture is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases. Greenpeace's new report Cool Farming details the destructive practices resulting from industrial agriculture and presents workable solutions to help reduce its contribution to climate change. These practical changes will benefit the environment as well as farmers and consumers throughout the world. This report details for the first time all direct and indirect contribution agriculture has on climate change.

This report reviews the terrestrial Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), which are endorsed by the UNFCCC and the Group on Earth Observations (GEO). Details are provided on why these observations are needed to understand the causes of climate change, analyse the potential impacts, evaluate the adaptation options and enable characterization of extreme events such as floods, droughts and heat waves.

Several studies addressing the supply and demand for food in China suggest that the nation can largely meet its needs in the coming decades. However, these studies do not consider the effects of climate change. This paper examines whether near future expected changes in climate are likely to alter this picture. The authors analyze the effect of temperature and precipitation on net crop revenues using a cross section consisting of both rainfed and irrigated farms.

The paper begins by laying out the current state of global food insecurity and malnutrition, including magnitude, trends and future projections. The causes, consequences and costs of food insecurity and malnutrition are explored. Malnutrition is clearly a severe impediment to sustainable development and human security as it slows down economic growth and the achievement of equity. The paper briefly lays out a number of factors besides climate change, bioenergy and rising prices that will likely contribute to malnutrition in the future.