Studies suggest that tropical cyclones are becoming more powerful with the most dramatic increase in the North Atlantic. The increase is correlated with an increase in ocean temperature. A debate concerns the nature of these increases with some studies attributing them to natural climate fluctuations, and others suggesting climate change related to anthropogenic increases in radiative forcing from greenhouse gases.

A unique drilling project in the western Ross Sea has revealed that Antarctica had a much more eventful climate history than previously assumed. A new sediment core hints that the western part of the now-frozen continent went through prolonged ice-free phases

The Eocene

On geological timescales, carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere through volcanism and organic matter oxidation and is removed through mineral weathering and carbonate burial. An analysis of ice-core CO2 records and marine carbonate chemistry indicates a tight coupling between these processes during the past 610,000 years, which suggests that a weathering feedback driven by atmospheric CO2 leads to a mass balance between CO2 sources and sinks on long timescales.

Oxygen-poor waters occupy large volumes of the intermediate-depth eastern tropical oceans. Oxygen-poor conditions have far-reaching impacts on ecosystems because important mobile microorganisms avoid or cannot survive in hypoxic zones. Climate models predict declines in oceanic dissolved oxygen produced by global warming. The researchers constructed a 50-year time series of dissolved-oxygen concentration for select tropical oceanic regions by augmenting a historical database with recent measurements.

Subglacial water can significantly affect the velocity of ice streams and outlet glaciers of ice sheets. Depending on the geometry and capacity of the subglacial hydrologic system, increased surface melting in Greenland over the coming decades may influence the ice sheet's mass balance. Furthermore, subglacial lakes in Antarctica can modulate ice velocities and act as nucleation points for new fast-flowing ice streams.

The generally warm and ice-free conditions of the Eocene epoch rapidly declined to the cold and glaciated state of the Oligocene epoch. Geochemical evidence from deep-sea sediments resolves in detail the climatic events surrounding this transition.

Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels greatly influence the Earth's climate. Evidence from ice cores and marine sediments suggests that over timescales beyond the glacial cycles, carbon fluxes are finely balanced and act to stabilize temperatures.

deposits in Sanbao cave in Central China tell the story of the region's climate more than 200,000 years ago. They also reveal the working of the East Asian monsoon over timescales that range over