A detailed but accessible overview of the concept of indirect land use change and the way that ILUC emissions are estimated. Identifies factors that determine the size of ILUC effects when biofuel demand increases and shows how they are handled in the most important models used in the U.S. and EU.

The study estimates carbon impacts of bioenergy from ten biomass feedstock harvesting pathways feeding into three different production pathways. The harvesting pathways include forestry, agricultural residue, and dedicated energy crops.

Investing in ultra-low-sulfur fuel (ULSF, fuels with less than 10 ppm sulfur content) and clean vehicle technologies in India will not come without costs. But the benefits of these investments, in terms of reduced healthcare costs and higher productivity, far outweigh the costs. This paper discusses these issues in detail.