Social protection and climate change programmes are two public policy responses that governments use to address the challenges of poverty, climate vulnerability and gender inequality.

This paper explores the emerging concept of ‘energy delivery models’, looking at the nuts and bolts of how energy is delivered from resource to user, focusing on how to reach the poor in terms of energy access and opportunities in the supply chain.

Developed countries have pledged billions of dollars a year to help poor nations adapt to climate change. But how should the money be spent? For the world’s poor, who are both the most vulnerable to climate change and the most in need of social protection, the best answer may be cash transfer programmes.

This paper assesses the practical contribution of the Gold Standard (GS) and Climate Community and Biodiversity (CCB) Standards to local development through the identification of high quality carbon offset projects and ensuring high standards of consultation with local communities during project development and implementation.