Fundamental to the onset of the Indian Summer Monsoon is the land-sea thermal gradient from the Indian Ocean to the Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau (HTP). The timing of the onset is strongly controlled by the meridional tropospheric temperature gradient due to the rapid pre-monsoon heating of the HTP compared to the relatively cooler Indian Ocean.

Insurers have more incentives than any other industry to catalyze global action on climate change.This latest Ceres report outlines the insurance industry