The suitable agro-climate, plenty bee flora and immemorial practice with rich traditional knowledge offers enormous potential for development and success of apiculture in the state of Nagaland.

Ethnobiological study in West Bengal is mostly confined to the use of plants in Ethnomedicine, however, there is a dearth of ethnozoogical works; thus, there is an urgent need to take up such studies. Recent survey among the Mech tribe living in the Duars of West Bengal, India, has recorded the uses of 20 different species of animals along with 11 species of plants in traditional medicines to cure different ailments.

Monkey jack (Artocarpus gomenzianus Wall.ex Trecul) an underutilized edible and medicinal plant of Central Western Ghats has been studied for their distribution, harvesting, morphology and juice yield, processing, preservation and powder yield at various regions of Central Western Ghats. The fruits showed variation with respect to morphology, juice yield, powder yield, proximates and nutritive value and also elemental components. The comparative study with RDA value confirms the food supplements properties of monkey jack.

Non timber forest products (NTFPs) play significant role in the protection of the livelihood safety net of the forest dwellers of North East India. The present study has the objectives of documenting the traditional knowledge pertaining to the processing of non-timber forest products in the Inner Line Reserve Forest (ILRF) of Cachar district, Assam, India. This forest harbours about 21 commercially important NTFPs, 8 of which are subjected to different traditional processing techniques before marketing to ensure their durability and enhanced resistance to fungal and insect attacks.

Climate change is expected to adversely affect agricultural production in India. This study was undertaken to understand the dryland farmers’ perceptions about climate change, its impacts and indigenous adaptation measures they pursue. From the analysis of data collected from 200 dryland farmers of Villupuram and Virudhunagar districts in Tamil Nadu, it was found that 81 % of farmers experienced climate change in terms of decreasing and unpredictable rainfall, increasing temperature and delayed onset of monsoon. Analysis of climate trend validated their perceptions.

Resource-poor farmers, living in marginal environments and more directly dependent on local natural resources, have developed location specific agricultural knowledge systems that help them to adapt to climatic variability. In this research, we documented farmers’ perceptions of climatic variability and related adaptive practices in three selected hamlets of Azamgarh district of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Data were collected with 60 farmers using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools and personal interview methods.

The investigation on phytomedicine was conducted in order to asses the traditional uses and exact distribution of medicinal flora of arid areas of Pakistan. It was found that in a total of 59 plant species belonging to 50 genera and 30 families are reported to be used for different diseases as asthma, piles, cancer, skin diseases, as astringent, spermatorrhea, as refrigerant and diabetes. It was investigated that conservation of medicinally important plants and traditional folk knowledge is necessary in order to save them from extinction.

Since centuries, the handicraft industry is running successfully in Kashmir. Among handicrafts, shawl industry has gained popularity all over the world for the way these shawls are being prepared. Shawl making in Kashmir is an age old practice overe which the artisans have expertise themselves over generations. In this paper, the processing of Pashmina from fibre to the final product (shawl) right from harvesting up to finishing is presented in detail.

An experiment has been undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of traditional practices to use common salt for weed management in jhum paddy in mid hills conditions in Eastern Himalayas with the objective to study the effect of salt application on morphological characters, yield attributes, yield and economics of paddy under shifting cultivation areas. Salt @ 120 kg ha-1 with two spay resulted significantly (P<0.05) higher grain yield over control, and also higher weed control efficiency than three hand weeding.

In Uttarakhand Himalaya traditional agriculture is the mere way to meet the subsistence needs of the local farming communities. In traditional system of agriculture, local seed material of traditional crop varieties plays an important role for crop production. In such a situation, the protection of seed material and its conservation for future needs is also of very paramount importance. In order to protect the seed material and food grains, local practices by using indigenous plant material and other articles are very useful, eco-friendly and sustainable.