This report offers a new approach to facilitate the implementation and improve the effectiveness of climate action, with the first broad diagnosis of misalignments between overall policy and regulatory frameworks and climate goals.

Adaptation responses are needed to address the existing levels of climate variability and to prepare for future climate impacts. There is wide agreement that adaptation is an important issue and would benefit from being enhanced through more effective action and better planning.

This report develops an analytical framework that assesses the macroeconomic, environmental and distributional consequences of energy subsidy reforms. The framework is applied to the case of Indonesia to study the consequences in this country of a gradual phase out of all energy consumption subsidies between 2012 and 2020.

With India’s low life expectancy largely reflecting deaths from preventable diseases, the most significant gains in health would come from population-wide preventive measures. Access to public health care services varies substantially, resulting in many people turning to private-sector providers who mainly serve those who can pay.

This paper presents a new set of estimates of exposure to air pollution (fine particulate matter - PM2.5) at the city, regional and national levels for the 34 OECD countries, and at the regional and national levels for Brazil, China, India, Russia and South Africa. The estimates are developed by the computation of satellite-based observations.

This paper explores methodological approaches that can be used to monitor and evaluate climate change adaptation initiatives at the projects and programme levels.

This paper investigates how climate change can affect agricultural production and proposes some adaptation measures that could be undertaken to mitigate the negative effects

This paper explores the possible role of the 2015 agreement in promoting further mobilisation of climate finance for developing countries in the post-2020 period.

This paper analyses the effects of government policies on flows of private finance for investment in renewable energy (inducement effect). It also examines whether direct provision of public finance for a project increases the volume of private finance raised (“crowding in” effect).

This twentieth edition of the Agricultural Outlook published jointly by OECD and FAO provides market projections to 2023 for major agricultural commodities, biofuels and fish across 41 countries and 12 regions. In a special focus on India, the Outlook projects sustained food production and consumption growth, led by value-added sectors like dairy production and aquaculture.