An enhanced transparency framework will be a central component of the post-2020 international climate policy regime under the Paris Agreement, underpinning the dynamic process of updating nationally determined contributions (NDCs) and providing input to the global stocktakes on successive five-year cycles.

Climate finance is an indispensable enabler of enhanced climate action. Transparency regarding the scale and type of climate finance provided and mobilised by developed and other countries, and received by developing countries, is important for national and international purposes.

This analysis considers scenarios for the potential contribution of the bond markets to meet low-carbon investment financing needs in a 2oC energy pathway.

Given that the population of the Sahel depends largely on rain-fed agriculture and transhumant livestock rearing, there is a growing concern about the future climate of the region as global warming may alter the availability of water resources.

Global freshwater demand is projected to increase substantially in the coming decades, making water one of the most fiercely contested resources on the planet. Water is linked to many economic activities, and there are complex channels through which water affects economic growth.

Disasters present a broad range of human, social, financial, economic and environmental impacts, with potentially long-lasting, multi-generational effects. The financial management of these impacts is a key challenge for individuals and governments in developed and developing countries.

The face of development has changed, with diverse stakeholders involved – and implicated – in what are more and more seen as global and interlinked concerns. At the same time, there is an urgent need to mobilise unprecedented resources to achieve the ambitious Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

The recent period of high agricultural commodity prices is most likely over, say the OECD and FAO in their latest 10-year Outlook. But the two organisations warn of the need to be vigilant as the probability of a major price swing remains high.

This report discusses cities’ resilience from economic, social, environmental and institutional perspectives.

Air Pollution could cause 6-9 million premature deaths by 2060, with India and China facing threat of maximum number of such mortalities, according to an OECD report. 

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