The Human Development Report 2007/2008 shows that climate change is not just a future scenario. Increased exposure to droughts, floods and storms is already destroying opportunity and reinforcing inequality. Meanwhile, there is now overwhelming scientific evidence that the world is moving towards the point at which irreversible ecological catastrophe becomes unavoidable.

In order to at least halve global emissions below 1990 by 2050 so as to increase the likelihood of avoiding the worst impacts of climate change, such as the complete melting of the Greenland ice sheet, an ambitious and inclusive post-2012 agreement is needed. This agreement should be based on the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol and include a set of equitable commitments from all major economies to reduce or curb emissions of greenhouse gases. In order to stay below 2

There is now clear scientific evidence that emissions from economic activity, particularly the burning of fossil fuels for energy, are causing changes to the Earth's climate. A sound understanding of the economics of climate change is needed in order to underpin an effective global response to this challenge. The Stern Review is an independent, rigorous and comprehensive analysis of the economic aspects of this crucial issue.

The conference of parties to the un climate convention in Nairobi went along predictable lines. In the 12 years of the convention, political rhetoric may not have changed much

Sudden global warming 55 million years ago provides evidence for high climate sensitivity to atmospheric CO2, but the source of the carbon remains enigmatic.

marine life stirs oceans enough to affect climate, says a study by scientists of the Florida State University. Movement of winds and water has a bearing on climate. Previously, it was thought that the difference in temperature resulted in the movement of water and hence different climatic conditions, but the role of marine organisms was not highlighted.

The source of the proposal was almost as remarkable as the idea itself.

Just imagine

Monthly and 3-hourly precipitation data from twentieth-century climate simulations by the newest generation of 18 coupled climate system models are analyzed and compared with available observations. The characteristics examined include the mean spatial patterns, intraseasonal-to-interannual and ENSO-related variability, convective versus stratiform precipitation ratio, precipitation frequency and intensity for different precipitation categories, and diurnal cycle.

Melting Himalayan glaciers are threatening to unleash a torrent of floods into mountain valleys, and ultimately dry up rivers across South Asia. A new study, due to be presented in July to the International Commission on Snow and Ice (ICSI), predicts that most of the glaciers in the region will vanish within 40 years as a result of global warming.