A protein responsible for repairing damaged DNA may be a vital link to explaining how smoking causes lung cancer, US researchers reported on Tuesday. Lung cells exposed to cigarette smoke produce less of the protein, called FANCD2, the team at Oregon Health & Science University Cancer Institute reported. Without FANCD2, damaged DNA can cause cells to proliferate out of control instead of destroying themselves as normal cells do.

A protein responsible for repairing damaged DNA may be a vital link to explaining how smoking causes lung cancer, US researchers reported on Tuesday. Lung cells exposed to cigarette smoke produce less of the protein, called FANCD2, the team at Oregon Health & Science University Cancer Institute reported.

The study, which is believed to be the first long-term, population-wide study into the links between deaths from diseases and atmospheric pollutants, examined figures from all 352 English local authorities. Researchers found a strong correlation between engine exhaust emissions and pneumonia deaths. The study estimated that every year, pollution-related pneumonia kills nearly as many people as the 1952 London smog. Lewisham had the highest number of pollution-related pneumonia deaths, while Berwick-upon-Tweed had the lowest.

Scientists have found important genetic differences between people that may help explain why some smokers get lung cancer and others do not. Three teams from France, Iceland and the United States said on Wednesday that they had pinpointed a region of the genome containing genes that can put smokers at even greater risk of contracting the killer disease. In all three studies, nicotine appears a major culprit.

Studies have shown that people exposed to uranium may develop lung cancer, leukaemia, chromosomal aberrations, fibrosis of the lungs and non-malignant respiratory diseases. After entering the

A large body of epidemiologic literature has found an association of increased fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) with acute and chronic mortality. The effect of improvements in particle exposure is less clear.

Associations have been found between day-to-day particulate air pollution and increased risk of various adverse health outcomes, including cardiopulmonary mortality. However, studies of health effects of long-term particulate air pollution have been less conclusive.

India is facing a serious double burden of disease. Most of the old infectious diseases like malaria, filariasis and kala-azar have not yet disappeared; indeed they are bouncing back. At the same time, other chronic non-communicable diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disorders are becoming more dominant.

Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies were deter mined in peripheral lymphocytes from traffic policemen drawn from various busy traffic points of Madras metro in India. These policemen were under constant exposure to automobile exhaust pollution during their 8 h work schedule.

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