Exposure to ambient air pollution increases morbidity and mortality, and is a leading contributor to global disease burden. We explored spatial and temporal trends in mortality and burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution from 1990 to 2015 at global, regional, and country levels.

Cancer is a major cause of death in children worldwide, and the recorded incidence tends to increase with time. Internationally comparable data on childhood cancer incidence in the past two decades are scarce. This study aimed to provide internationally comparable local data on the incidence of childhood cancer to promote research of causes and implementation of childhood cancer control.

Global tuberculosis incidence has declined marginally over the past decade, and tuberculosis remains out of control in several parts of the world including Africa and Asia. Although tuberculosis control has been effective in some regions of the world, these gains are threatened by the increasing burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. XDR tuberculosis has evolved in several tuberculosis-endemic countries to drug-incurable or programmatically incurable tuberculosis (totally drug-resistant tuberculosis).

Residential combustion (RC) and electricity generating unit (EGU) emissions adversely impact air quality and human health by increasing ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Studies to date have not isolated contributing emissions by state of origin (source-state), which is necessary for policy makers to determine efficient strategies to decrease health impacts.

Original Source

The objective of the study was to identify risk factors and describe outcomes for children newly identified with blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥45 µg/dL in New York City (NYC) during 2004-2010 to promote timely identification as well as inform clinical practice and public health policy.

Original Source

Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) was first identified in 1957, when it was isolated from a sick monkey from the Kyasanur Forest in Karnataka State, India. Since then it has been reported to be enzootic in five districts of Karnataka State. Despite the availability of a vaccine against the disease, reports of human infections are on the rise. Isolated cases and antibody against KFDV have been reported from new areas from the states of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Kerala in India.

Each year, about 210 million women become pregnant and about 140 million newborn babies are delivered. The sheer scale of maternal health issues makes maternal well being and survival vital concerns. A decade after The Lancet published a Series on maternal survival, a new Series of six papers brings our knowledge of maternal health, its epidemiology, successes, and current failings together, and at a crucial time within the sustainable development framework to 2030.

Glyphosate is a non-selective, phosphonomethyl amino acid herbicide registered to control weeds in various agricultural and non-agricultural settings. The herbicide acts by inhibiting the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme, which is not present in mammalian systems. Glyphosate was initially registered in 1974.

The biological mechanisms by which cleaning products and disinfectants - an emerging risk factor - affect respiratory health remain incompletely evaluated. Studying genes by environment interactions (GxE) may help identify new genes related to adult-onset asthma.

Original Source

By analysing the similarity of viral genetic sequences from nearly 1,600 people with HIV in one community in KwaZulu-Natal, the study shows that adolescent girls and women in their early 20s tend to pick up the virus from men aged around 30. When the women grow older, they go on to infect their long-term partners, who in turn may pass the virus on through affairs with younger women.

Original Source