One challenge in assessing the health effects of human exposure to air pollution in epidemiologic studies is the lack of widespread historical air pollutant monitoring data to characterize past exposure levels. Davis et al. (p.

Counting the world

Use of environmentally persistent polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants has been reduced because of concerns about health effects, but potential health effects of organophosphate (OP) flame retardants used as alternatives to PBDEs have not been extensively investigated, despite evidence of widespread human exposure. Meeker and Stapleton (p.

It has been proposed that formaldehyde may influence the risk or severity of asthma through irritant effects by stimulating allergic responses (when linked with endogenous proteins) or by inhibiting bronchodilation, but findings of observational studies of childhood asthma and formaldehyde have been inconsistent. McGwin et al.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified occupational exposure as a painter as being carcinogenic to humans based on a comprehensive review published in 1989. Guha et al. (p.

Motor vehicles are a significant source of urban air pollution and are increasingly important contributors of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.

Atrazine and other corn herbicides are routinely detected in drinking water. Two studies on potential association of atrazine with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and preterm birth prevalence found inconsistent results. Moreover, these studies did not control for individual-level potential confounders.

The aim of this study was to review epidemiologic evidence, provide summary risk estimates of the association between exposure to chlorination disinfection by-products (DBPs) and congenital anomalies, and provide recommendations for future studies.

There is growing interest in disentangling the health effects of spatially clustered social and physical environmental exposures and in exploring potential synergies among them, with particular attention directed to the combined effects of psychosocial stress and air pollution.

Hypotheses about the genesis of novel H1N1 influenza (the pandemic strain of swine flu) range far and wide. Some public health and epidemiology experts are taking a fresh look at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) , which they say provide ideal conditions that facilitate the mutation of viral pathogens into novel strains.