The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has just offered further evidence that American children — and rural children in particular — are in trouble. Previously, the CDC had noted that poor U.S. children 2 to 8 years of age have higher rates of parent-reported mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders (MBDDs) than their wealthier counterparts. Now, in the latest of a series of reports, the agency documents the finding that rural children from small communities are more likely to have MBDDs than those living in cities and suburbs.

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy has been linked to birth defects, yet the magnitude of risk remains uncertain. Investigators studying the 2013–2014 Zika outbreak in French Polynesia estimated that the risk of microcephaly due to ZIKV infection in the first trimester of pregnancy was 0.95% (95% confidence interval, 0.34 to 1.91), on the basis of eight microcephaly cases identified retrospectively in a population of approximately 270,000 people with an estimated rate of ZIKV infection of 66%.

The age at which allergenic foods should be introduced into the diet of breast-fed infants is uncertain. Researchers evaluated whether the early introduction of allergenic foods in the diet of breast-fed infants would protect against the development of food allergy.

A single-dose regimen of the current killed oral cholera vaccines that have been prequalified by the World Health Organization would make them more attractive for use against endemic and epidemic cholera. We conducted an efficacy trial of a single dose of the killed oral cholera vaccine Shanchol, which is currently given in a two-dose schedule, in an urban area in which cholera is highly endemic.

Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging flavivirus, generally causes mild infection in humans but is associated with severe neurologic complications and adverse fetal outcomes. ZIKV is transmitted to humans primarily by aedes mosquitoes. However, there is some evidence of sexual transmission. Two studies have shown the presence of infectious ZIKV in semen. A recent article described detection of ZIKV RNA in semen 62 days after the onset of illness, but infectious virus was not cultured.

We at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) continue to be deeply concerned about the growing epidemic of opioid abuse, addiction, and overdose — an epidemic directly related to the increasingly widespread misuse of powerful opioid pain medications.

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A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta.

The nonmedical use of prescription opioids is a major public health issue in the United States, both because of the overall high prevalence and because of marked increases in associated morbidity and mortality. In 2014, a total of 10.3 million persons reported using prescription opioids nonmedically (i.e., using medications that were not prescribed for them or were taken only for the experience or feeling that they caused).

The frequency of germline mutations in cancer-predisposition genes in children and adolescents with cancer and the implications of such mutations are largely unknown. Previous studies have relied mainly on candidate-gene approaches, which are, by design, limited. To better determine the contribution of germline predisposition mutations to childhood cancer, we used next-generation sequencing, including whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing, to analyze the genomes of 1120 children and adolescents with cancer.

Genomewide association studies can be used to identify disease-relevant genomic regions, but interpretation of the data is challenging. The FTO region harbors the strongest genetic association with obesity, yet the mechanistic basis of this association remains elusive.

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