Free distribution of a technology can be an effective development policy instrument if its adoption is socially inefficient and hampered by affordability constraints. Improved cookstoves may be such a case: they generate high environmental and public health returns, but adoption is generally low.
Developing countries are disproportionately affected by the rising trend of losses from climate-related extreme events. These losses are projected to continue to increase in future, driven by climate change and the accumulation of people and assets in high-risk areas.
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) released its assessment of national policies and the vulnerability of industries to climate change in selected sub-sectors in Egypt, Kenya, Senegal and South Africa.