Understanding the magnitude and importance of income shocks, such as drought or conflict, in causing and perpetuating poverty is critical to designing policies aimed at building resilience and contributing toward the goal of ending poverty.

Global economic prospects have darkened. Financing conditions have tightened, industrial production has moderated, and trade tensions remain elevated. The recovery in emerging market and developing economies has stalled, and some countries have experienced significant financial stress.

Ethiopia’s real gross domestic product (GDP) growth, while still strong, decelerated to 7.7 percent in FY2018.

This report’s purpose is to help Lao policy makers and stakeholders prepare for future El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. It does this by providing information on ENSO’s poverty, economic, and agricultural impacts in Lao PDR and outlining ways forward.

Malawi currently faces an environmental cycle of decline and degradation. The challenges it faces are complex and interrelated, but there are two underlying drivers behind this decline. Population growth places huge

Bhutan has a strong track record of reducing poverty and boosting shared prosperity, primarily supported by the state, which has played a large role in the country's development accomplishments.Growth has been driven mainly by the public sector through hydropower development.

Water, climate and finance know no borders. This brings challenges and opportunities: The majority of freshwater worldwide flows in transboundary basins and most climate change impacts are felt through the water cycle.

This report builds on prior work to provide a new, comprehensive, and balanced view of water security in Pakistan, stressing the importance of the diverse social, environmental, and economic outcomes from water.

The International Maritime Organization’s initial strategy on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from ships stipulates that the international shipping sector should assess the impacts on states prior to adoption of the mitigation measures included in the strategy.

Fiscal policies can lay the foundation for low-carbon and climate-resilient development. Building on more than two decades of research in development and environmental economics, this book argues that fiscal instruments are crucial for mitigating and adapting to climate change while raising human welfare.

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