Current trends suggests global warming is likely to exceed 2°C by mid-century.

Zambia, like most of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), is facing a future where smallholder crop production will be threatened by climate change. In this southern African nation, where smallholder farming is the norm, the effects of climate change — erratic rainfall, shorter seasons and prolonged dry spells — are already being felt.

Climate change adaptation has become a policy priority in most developing countries, despite limited resourcing. With climate finance soon becoming available, countries need to demonstrate that they can absorb, track and assess adaptation investments through effective monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems.

As adaptation to climate change becomes the focus of increasing attention and the target of significant spending, there is a growing need for frameworks and tools that enable organisations to track and assess the outcomes of adaptation interventions.

This report highlights the arguments necessary to showcase the adaptive potential of pastoralism to climate change and to promote investment in pastoral areas in East Africa.

This paper presents a conceptual framework that turns the mainstream adaptation discourse upside down, with understanding and respect for autonomous adaptation as the starting point for a new agenda to manage the human dimensions of climate change.

Will Africa be steamrollered by climate change? The continent harbours 33 of the Least Developed Countries, is heavily reliant on agriculture and has limited economic resources to finance adaptation. Its geographic position and high sensitivity to climatic variability make it vulnerable. Large swathes of Africa