The objective of this study was to evaluate the relations between bone mineral density (BMD) and lead in blood, tibia, and patella and to investigate how BMD modifies these lead biomarkers in older women.

Environmental exposure to cadmium decreases bone density indirectly through hypercalciuria resulting from renal tubular dysfunction. The researchers sought evidence for a direct osteotoxic effect of cadmium in women.

Perchlorate is an environmental contaminant that blocks iodine uptake into the thyroid gland and reduces thyroid hormones. This action of perchlorate raises significant concern over its effects on brain development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate neurologic function in rats after developmental exposure to perchlorate.

Exposure to toxic methylmercury (MeHg) through fish consumption is a large problem worldwide, and it has led to governmental recommendations of reduced fish consumption and blacklisting of mercury-contaminated fish. The elimination kinetics of MeHg varies greatly among individuals. Knowledge about the reasons for such variation is of importance for improving the risk assessment for MeHg. One possible explanation is hereditary differences in MeHg metabolism. MeHg is eliminated from the body as a glutathione (GSH) conjugate.

Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has a long history of using risk-based approaches for regulatory purposes, pollutant limits for pathogens in biosolids are not currently based on quantitative risk assessments. The researchers developed and demonstrated a risk-based methodology for assessing the risk to human health from exposure to pathogens via biosolids.

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between asbestos exposure and survival outcome in MPM in an effort to advance the understanding of the contribution of asbestos exposure to MPM prognosis.

Exposure to fine particulate air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The researchers conducted a study to determine whether exposure to ambient particulate matter causes vascular dysfunction.

Hairless mice that ingested arsenite in drinking water exhibited more than a 5-fold enhancement of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) carcinogenesis, whereas arsenite alone was carcinogenically inactive. Dietary organoselenium blocked the cancer enhancement effect of arsenic but not cancer induction by UVR.

Biofuels are being promoted as energy sources that could reduce both dependence on imported oil and fossil fuel emissions. Currently, a large percentage of biofuels are produced from food crops, a situation that some experts say is leading to food insecurity around the world.

Biofuels are held up as a relatively easy solution to the twin problems of petroleum dependence and carbon emissions. But new research suggests that fuels such as corn-based ethanol may cause as many problems as they solve.