Agriculture in what is now Mexico City can be traced back to the great city of Tenochtitl

The publication titled Practical guideline on the use of urine in crop production gives practical guidance on the use of urine in crop production as a vital component of sustainable crop production and sanitation systems. It also includes guidance on how to initiate activities that will facilitate the introduction of new fertilisers to the
agricultural community.

Since March 2009, there has been a

If human urine is properly collected and used for agriculture, it contributes to improved environmental sanitation in cities and reduces the costs of crop production. The innovation lies in the integration of agriculture, environment and sanitation sectors.

To better understand the linkage between sanitation and agriculture at municipal scale, a study was carried out that addressed the following research questions:
- How does a larger investment in flush toilets affect water quality and urban farmers?
- How much of the nutrient demand of urban farmers could be covered through waste composting?

Rapid urbanisation in developing countries intensifies the challenges of making sufficient food available for the increasing urban population, and managing the related waste flow. Unlike in rural communities, there is usually little or no return of food biomass and related nutrients into the food production process. Most waste ends up on landfills or pollutes the urban environment.

The disposal of waste presents an increasing challenge to the administrative bodies of megacities. The Municipal Corporation of the Indian city Pune has introduced source separation systems and onsite organic waste composting. The citizens concerned are looking for practical ways to treat their organic wastes and they have found city farming to be a viable solution.

Although batch composting of manure is very common throughout China at both large and small scales, there is little experience with composting of human waste in urban centres. This project, the first on thermal composting of human faeces under indoor controlled conditions, took place in a highdensity urban setting in Dongsheng, Erdos Municipality in Inner Mongolia, China.

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School feeding is common in Africa and widely recognised as beneficial for both the physical and mental development of the children. However, mainly due to the sharp increase of food prices, many parents are no longer able to pay for their children

Marginalized urban communities living in informal settlements or on fragile hillsides and slopes in Quito, Ecuador, are the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, as they are highly exposed to frequent floods and landslides, droughts, food scarcity and uncertain food supply chains.