Kirkuk is located in the northeast of Iraq, along the Khasa River, about 250 kilometres northeast of the capital Baghdad. After the toppling of Saddam Hussein

Since the end of the war that raged from 1989 to 2003, Liberia has suffered from chronic food insecurity, due to the destruction of its agricultural sector and basic socio-economic infrastructure. Urban agriculture provides a strategy to help reduce urban poverty, improve food security and enhance urban waste management in Monrovia and other Liberian cities.

The Somali region is located in the eastern part of Ethiopia. Its capital, Jijiga, is located 635 km from the capital Addis Ababa. Currently there are three refugee camps in this region, namely Kebribeyah, Awberie and Sheder, which together host about 28,500 individuals. To allow refugees to complement the basic food ration, UNHCR and its partners started a number of homegardening projects.

Natural hazards, civil conflicts, wars and economic crises continue to generate unstable and unsafe conditions, placing immense pressures on communities and local livelihoods. These emergency scenarios often result in people fleeing their homes to

Scarcity of water is one of the main problems in Lima, and there is increasing competition for the use of water, for human consumption, agriculture, industry, and green areas. The use of alternative sources is urgently required.

Currently some estimated 854 million people worldwide are chronically hungry due to extreme poverty; and about 2 billion people lack food security intermittently due to varying degrees of poverty (FAO 2006).

Agriculture in and around Indian cities is under pressure due to rapid urbanisation and associated land use change, and couples with pressure on already scarce water resources. The major beneficiaries of UA in the larger cities are low-income communiies that make use of the available resources - vacant land, river banks and wastewater - to supplement their meagre incomes.

As safe water sources become scarcer and more polluted, the use of wastewater in urban agriculture may produce many benefits but may also lead to crop and soil contamination and endanger farmers and consumers. To effectively manage wastewater use in agriculture, it is important to understand how stakeholders feel impacted by the practice.

Many studies have pointed out the health risks associated with inappropriate use of untreated wastewater or polluted water for both consumers and farmers in urban vegetable production in Burkina Faso. But this is a reality in daily life, and at this point understanding farmers' strategies is critical for implementing measures to make irrigation practices safer.

Beijing is facing a shortage of water. Because of downward trend in rainfall, surface water is gradually drying up and the level of groundwater is declining. This decline in availability of water is affecting urban agriculture in the city.