In order for development finance institutions, including multilateral development banks and bilateral, regional and national development banks to “align” themselves with the Paris Agreement, they must make sure that their activities conducted through financial intermediaries are also aligned.

This report is the third and the latest edition of the series since 2018 that take stock of climate action by cities, regions and businesses and their global aggregate impact on greenhouse gas emissions. The 2021 edition focuses on the progress of non-state and subnational actors toward their emissions reduction targets.

In 2017, the International Development Finance Club (IDFC) together with the group of Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) made a joint commitment to “align financial flows with the Paris Agreement”.

Rules for the implementation of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement are still under negotiation at the international level, with a key focus on reaching consensus at COP26 in Glasgow. This report aims to inform this policy making process.

The triple COVID-19, economic, and climate crisis poses a growing challenge to debt sustainability and financing for climate action. There are growing calls to look for solutions for the three crisis together, notably through “debt-for-climate” swaps.

This paper discusses the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 crisis on the energy sector and frames it in the broader perspective of the climate crisis and development aspirations.

Georgia is at an important crossroad with regards to the short-, medium- and long-term future of infrastructure and investment in the transport sector.

In order to reach the goals of the Paris Agreement, it is essential to rapidly move from a zero-sum offsetting approach towards rapid transitions to decarbonise all emitting sectors.

This study aims to obtain enhanced understanding of subnational (e.g. cities and subnational regions) and non-state (e.g. companies) actors’ action on GHG emissions reductions in the European Union (EU).

The 2020 NDC Update report discusses countries’ preparedness to ratchet up ambition in the first NDC update cycle amidst a global health crisis.