This case study presents a forest rehabilitation initiative in the tropical dry forests in northwestern India. This project is undertaken by an Indian Non Government Organisation (NGO),
the Foundation for Ecological Security (FES), in cooperation with the Forest Department and aims at improving the livelihood of tribal communities. The framework of the project is the
Forests are extensively used by rural people for subsistence in the tropics. Biomass extraction (like grazing, fuelwood collection and collection of non-timber forest produce) is arguably the most widespread form of anthropogenic pressure in developing countries like India. Persistent extraction may alter forest structure and composition, which in turn may affect the resident forest fauna.
There is limited information on the ecological effects of anthropogenic disturbance caused by extractive activities such as grazing and firewood collection. A study was carried out in Sariska Tiger Reserve in India, to investigate the effects of disturbance on forest bird communities.
The issue of displacement and rehabilitation of people from wildlife areas is a recurrent and central theme in the context of crises in nature conservation in India. India is one of the countries where the issue of relocation has lately acquired centre-stage in debates on biodiversity conservation.
Under the Joint Forest Management (JFM) programme in south-western West Bengal, regenerating deciduous forests are being managed for the extraction of numerous plant products, both for commercial benefits and subsistence-level use, on a large scale.