Indian cities routinely make decisions on land use, housing, water, transport, economic growth and waste management that have implications for climate change mitigation and adaptation.

Indian cities are crucial to the response to climate change. As the bulk of their infrastructure is yet to be built, their current decisions can lock-in, or lock-out, inclusive and climate resilient forms.

Understanding India’s likely energy future is important for both development planning and climate policy.

India’s approach to climate policy is based on amplifying synergies between sustainable development and climate outcomes, or co-benefits. However, the evidence base for the magnitude of these synergies remains limited.

What should India put forward as the mitigation component of its climate contribution (or ‘Intended Nationally Determined Contribution’ (INDC))? Since energy accounts for 77% of India’s greenhouse gas emissions, this question can only be answered as one part of a larger discussion about India’s energy future.

Climate change poses particularly difficult challenges for India. On the one hand, India does not want any constraints on its development prospects. On the other, it also wants to be seen as an emerging global power that requires a leadership role on key global issues like climate change.