While many time series studies have established associations of daily pollution variations with daily deaths, there are fewer at low concentrations, or focused on locally generated pollution, which is becoming more important as regulations reduce regional transport. Causal modeling approaches are also lacking. The objective of the study was to use causal modeling to estimate the impact of local air pollution on mortality at low concentrations.

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Rodent models for urban air pollution show consistent induction of inflammatory responses in major brain regions. However, the initial impact of air pollution particulate material on olfactory gateways has not been reported. The researchers evaluated the olfactory neuroepithelium (OE) and brain regional responses to a nano-sized subfraction of urban traffic ultrafine particulate matter (nPM, < 200 nm) in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro.

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Early life exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) may contribute to development of obesity. Prospective evidence in humans on this topic is limited. Researchers examined prenatal and early childhood BPA exposures in relation to childhood measures of adiposity in the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) New York City birth cohort.

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The emerging field of sewage chemical-information mining is taking advantage of a readily available yet underappreciated resource: the untreated waste flowing under our feet and the biosolids remaining after treatment. It turns out that sewage and sewage sludge hold a wealth of data on chemical consumption and exposure, and potentially even the health status of whole communities.

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Prenatal exposure to ambient PM2.5, (i.e., fine particulate matter) has been associated with preterm birth and low birth weight. The association between prenatal PM2.5 exposure and intrauterine inflammation (IUI), an important risk factor for preterm birth and neurodevelopmental outcomes, has not been evaluated. The researchers aimed to investigate the association between maternal exposure to PM2.5 and IUI in the Boston Birth Cohort (BBC), a predominantly urban low-income minority population.

Many studies have reported the associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and increased risk of death. But, to our knowledge, none of them have used causal modeling approach or controlled for long-term temperature exposure. Few have used a general population sample. The researchers estimated the causal effects of long-term PM2.5 effect on mortality and tested the effect modifications by seasonal temperatures, census-tract-level socio-economic variables, and county-level health conditions.

Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is known to increase risk of diabetes. The objective of the study was to determine which POPs are most associated with prevalence of diabetes in 601 Akwesasne Native Americans.

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Preterm birth (PTB) rates (11.4% in 2013) in the United States (US) remain high and are a substantial cause of morbidity. Studies of prenatal exposure have associated particulate matter <2.5microns in diameter (PM2.5) and other ambient air pollutants with adverse birth outcomes, yet, to our knowledge, burden and costs of PM 2.5-attributable PTB have not been estimated in the US. The objective of the study was to estimate burden of PTB in the US and economic costs attributable to PM2.5 exposure in 2010.

Physical disability is common though not inevitable in older age and has direct bearing on a person’s ability to perform activities essential for self-care and independent living. Air pollution appears to increase the risk of several chronic diseases that contribute to the progression of disability. The researchers evaluate long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) in relation to progression in physical disability.

Original Source

Chicken meat has the highest per capita consumption among all meat types in North America. The practice of feeding 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, Rox) to chickens lasted for over 60 years. However, the fate of Rox and arsenic metabolites remaining in chicken are poorly understood. Researchers aimed to determine the elimination of Rox and metabolites from chickens and quantify the remaining arsenic species in chicken meat, providing necessary information for meaningful exposure assessment.

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