Chrysotile asbestos accounts for more than 90% of the asbestos used worldwide and exposure is associated with asbestosis (asbestos-related fibrosis) and other malignancies, but the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. A common pathogenic mechanism for these malignancies is represented by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), through which epithelial cells undergo a morphological transformation to take on a mesenchymal phenotype.

Telomere length and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content are markers of aging and aging-related diseases. There is inconclusive evidence concerning the mechanistic effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure on biomolecular markers of ageing. The present study examines the association between short- and long-term PM exposure with telomere length and mtDNA content in elderly and investigates to what extend this association is mediated by expression of genes playing a role in the telomere-mitochondrial axis of aging.

With a tropical rainforest climate, rapid urbanization, changing demography and ecology, Singapore experiences endemic dengue, with the last large outbreak in 2013 culminating in 22170 cases. In the absence of a vaccine on the market, vector control is the key approach for prevention. The objective of the study was to forecast the evolution of dengue epidemics in Singapore to provide early warning of outbreaks and to facilitate public health response to moderate an impending outbreak.

Reasons for the highly variable and often poor protection conferred by the Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine are multifaceted and poorly understood. The objective of the study was to determine whether early life PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene) exposure reduces 6-month infant BCG vaccine response.

xperimental studies have shown a decrease in driving performance at high temperatures. The epidemiological evidence for the relationship between heat and motor vehicle crashes is not consistent.

Original Source

The World Health Organization estimates that > 140 million people worldwide are exposed to arsenic (As)–contaminated drinking water. As undergoes biologic methylation, which facilitates renal As elimination. In folate-deficient individuals, this process is augmented by folic acid (FA) supplementation, thereby lowering blood As (bAs). Creatinine concentrations in urine are a robust predictor of As methylation patterns.

Access to safe drinking water is essential for health. Monitoring access to drinking water focuses on water supply type at the source, but there is limited evidence on whether quality differences at the source persist in water stored in the household.

Original Source

The tumor microenvironment plays in an important role in the progression of cancer by mediating stromal-epithelial paracrine signaling, which can aberrantly modulate cellular proliferation and tumorigenesis. Exposure to environmental toxicants, such as inorganic arsenic (iAs), has also been implicated in the progression of prostate cancer.

Original Source

Urban populations are highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of heat, with heat-related mortality showing intra-urban variations that are likely due to differences in urban characteristics and socioeconomic status. The objective was to investigate the influence of urban green and urban blue, i.e., urban vegetation and water bodies, on heat-related excess mortality in the elderly above 65 years in Lisbon, Portugal between 1998 and 2008.

Original Source

A population-based propensity-score matched cohort study design was used based on the Ontario population from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2001-2010). Participants were adults aged 20 years or older who moved from a low walkability neighborhood (defined as any neighborhood with a Walk Score<90) to either a high (Walk Score≥90) or another low walkability neighborhood. The incidence of hypertension was assessed by linking the cohort to administrative health databases using a validated algorithm. Propensity-score matched Cox proportional hazard models were used.