This research report presents the first comprehensive framework of business models in terms of developing, marketing and scaling Index-based flood insurance (IBFI).

Enhancing accountability has become an important objective of the governance reforms over the past two decades. This has resulted in the promotion of social accountability tools, which aim to enhance citizens’ voices, reduce corruption and improve service delivery in the development sector.

Agriculture is the largest single source of environmental degradation, responsible for over 30% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 70% of freshwater use and 80% of land conversion: it is the single largest driver of biodiversity loss (Foley et al. 2011, 2005; IPBES 2019; Willett et al. 2019).

Wastewater-fed aquaculture has a long history, especially in Asia. This report examines three empirical cases of integrated wastewater treatment and aquaculture production.

West Africa is experiencing persistent structural changes in the economic and social relations that surround individuals, households and communities. Referred to as social transformation, these changes are giving rise to growing inequalities, poverty and exclusion.

Agriculture, the largest user of water globally, is the engine of food security and an important source of employment across West Africa.

This brief discusses how water-related natural disasters are major obstacles to human well-being and sustainable development. Almost three quarters of all natural disasters between 2001 and 2018 were related to water (UNESCO and UN-Water 2020).

This report assesses the potential of solar photovoltaic (PV) irrigation for smallholder agriculture in Ghana, using elements of business planning and business models with a suitability mapping approach. These approaches take into account the economic as well as environmental sustainability of expanding such technology.

A necessary extension of the concept of Resource Recovery and Reuse with an even higher priority is the prevention and reduction of waste. One concern, in particular, is food waste, which constitutes the largest share of human waste.

Agricultural innovation scaling approaches tend to be empirical but do not sufficiently take into account the complex realities of ‘softer elements’ such as people, supply chains, markets, financing mechanisms, policies and regulations, professional knowledge, power relations, incentives and history.

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