Studies in humans and animals suggest that both short-term and long-term exposure to elevated traffic levels can adversely affect pulmonary and cardiovascular function. Although several studies have examined associations between blood pressure and air pollution, few have examined pulse pressure or measures of systemic inflammation. Rioux et al.
Industrial symbiosis (IS) has been used to describe the physical exchange and shared management of input and output materials by geographically proximate firms. Firms that engage in IS are said to belong to an industrial ecosystem.