Loss and damage is rapidly gaining prominence in the global climate change arena and is a newly emerging field of research focus. However, the concept behind the idea of residual loss and damage from the impacts of climate change has existed since before the inception of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
This study looks at different ways to improve adaptation and mitigation synergies in climate change financing. It reviews existing definitions of synergies and identifies various types of synergies that have been recognized to date.
This paper discusses the possibilities and constraints for adaptation to climate change in urban areas in low and middle-income nations. These contain a third of the world's population and a large proportion of the people and economic activities most at risk from sea-level rise and from the heatwaves, storms and floods whose frequency and/or intensity climate change is likely to increase.