The findings of the project ”Strengthening of approaches and instruments as well as promotion of processes to reduce the security risks posed by climate change in the context of climate change adaptation“ are summarized in this report.

Greenhouse gas emissions need to decrease substantially to limit global average temperature to a maximum of 2°C warming above the pre-industrial level in 2100. Emerging economies are of increasing importance in this global effort.

The study describes and discusses in detail how four CDM reform alternatives, namely discounting of emission reductions, ambitious baselines, purchase and cancellation of CERs and reinvestment of CER levies, could be integrated in a Post-2012 climate regime.

This report analyses the emissions reduction targets submitted under the Copenhagen Accord by developed and developing countries in matters of four key questions: Do the pledges add up to the emission reductions required necessary by science?;
What are the costs associated with meeting the given targets?;
Are the proposed emission reduction efforts of Annex I parties

The analysis of different global energy scenarios in part I of the report confirms that the exploitation of energy efficiency potentials and the use of renewable energies play a key role in reaching global CO2 reduction targets.

An intended effect of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the reflection of greenhouse gas emissions related costs in the production costs of installations covered by the Directive.