This report is the first output of a major international research project coordinated by IDDRI and Climates Strategies, entitled “Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal”, bringing together leading research institutes in several major coal producing and consuming countries.

This report has been commissioned by a group of foundations in G20 countries, which have come together under the F20 platform in order to engage with the issue of climate change and sustainability in the context of the G20.

Protected areas in general, African ones in particular, are currently underfunded, while they are threatened by encroachment and pollution and under continuous pressure.

The adoption of the Paris Climate Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals in 2015 firmly anchored the issue of climate change at the centre of international and national development policy.

The Paris Climate Agreement represents a landmark for international efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. 195 countries agreed to an international treaty with universal participation, ambitious objectives, and robust processes and rules to ensure implementation and a continuous strengthening of action against climate change.

The Paris Climate Agreement represents a landmark for international efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. 195 countries agreed to an international treaty with universal participation, ambitious objectives, and robust processes and rules to ensure implementation and a continuous strengthening of action against climate change.

The agroecological initiatives show the great importance of integration of farming systems in their territory for developing a range of services. Agroecological systems develop diverse relationships with other actors of local communities; in first place other farmers for knowledge exchange and cooperation.

This paper identifies four essential principles that would enable the transparency system to build trust in collective action.

The State of Environmental Migration 2011 is the second of an annual series, which aims to provide the reader with regularly-updated assessments on the changing nature and dynamics of environmental migration throughout the world.