India's annual monsoon is likely to be 96 percent of the long-term average, which would make it the worst season in five years, although the near normal forecast raised hope for economic support and bumper crops.
Although persistent drought in West Africa is well documented from the instrumental record and has been primarily attributed to changing Atlantic sea surface temperatures, little is known about the length, severity, and origin of drought before the 20th century.
India's monsoon rains, vital for the farm-dependent economy and the success of major crops, may exceed the norm this year if the El Nino system that brings drier weather fails to appear, as expected, forecasters say.
Long-term data on hourly wind speed from 70 meteorological centres of India Meteorological Department have been collected. The daily gust wind data have been processed for annual maximum wind speed (in kmph) for each site. Using the Gumbel probability paper approach the extreme value quantiles have been derived.
Nitrogen-based fertilisers have helped all but eradicate famine in large parts of the world. But reactive nitrogen in circulation has now doubled. Owen Gaffney asks, what effect is this having on the carbon cycle?