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Around 13 megacities have so far been identified as ABC hotpots. Bangkok, Beijing, Cairo, Dhaka, Karachi, Kolkata, Lagos, Mumbai, New Delhi, Seoul, Shanghai, Shenzhen and Tehran where soot levels are 10 per cent of the total mass of all human-made particles. ABCs can reduce sunlight hitting the Earth's surface in two ways.

This year

Increasing amount of soot, sulphates and other aerosol components in atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) are causing major threats to the water and food security of Asia and have resulted in surface dimming, atmospheric solar heating and soot deposition in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan-Tibetan (HKHT) glaciers and snow packs.

IMD's long range forecast for the seasonal rainfall over the country as a whole and over different homogenous regions except northwest India have been accurate. However, the seasonal rainfall over northwest India and rainfall during July for the country as a whole have not been accurate.

Controlling methane emissions through acid rain? adding sulphate to soil in paddy fields is a popular method of controlling methane emission, to the tune of up to 70 per cent. In highly polluted countries such as India and China, acid rain also deposits a substantial amount of sulphate. This leads to more than required sulphate, which can be harmful for paddy. In such cases it becomes

The Indian Air Force has decided to study ways and means to reduce emission of harmful gases from its aircraft so as to prevent depletion of the ozone layer.

Bulk percipitation displays the combined effects of all water soluble components of precipitation. Dust from the earth's surface is commonly assumed to be alkaline; it is commonly reported in the literature as a constituent of the atmosphere and of precipitation.

Current day concentrations of ground level ozone (O3) are commonly reducing crop yields by between 5 and 35 % at agriculturally important locations across South Asia. O3 induced economic crop losses could be in the region of $4 billion per annum for staple crops in South Asia; such losses are likely to impact more on poor and vulnerable people.

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Udhagamandalam: Under the aegis of the Public Awareness Association of Udhagamandalam, Ozone Protection Day was observed at the Municipal Elementary School here on Tuesday.

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