Pending ratification of the Nagoya Supplementary Protocol, non-government organisations (NGOs) are demanding that the Indian government enact a domestic legislation for liabilities and redress of living-modified organisms (LMOs).

The Nagoya-Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on liability and redress to the Cartagena Protocol on biosafety closed for signature in March 2012 with a total of 51 signatories, including India. The Supplementary Protocol dealt with the liability and redress on damage resulting from living modified organisms (LMOs).

India will push against punitive action being taken on countries failing to implement the Cartagena Protocol on bio-safety norms, till they frame domestic laws for the purpose.

The EU's Joint Research Centre (JRC) has published the proceedings of a workshop on socio-economic impacts of genetically modified (GM) crops. The report finds that there is insufficient evidence for a proper analysis of socio-economic impacts, and calls for the development of indicators to facilitate socio-economic studies.

This paper explores how the Cartagena Protocol to the convention on Biological Diversity, as well as other important drivers, have affected the regulation of genetically engineered (GE) crops in developing countries. It examines the impact of biosafety regulation on research and development of GE crops and on product approvals.

This paper assesses the global economic implications of the proposed strict documentation requirements on traded shipments of potentially genetically modified (GM) commodities under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.

The financial mechanism of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), operated by the GEF, has assisted eligible countries to implement their commitments for achieving the objectives of this unique international legal instrument. Considering that most of the biological diversity is located in developing countries, the importance of the GEF to the CBD remains fundamental. This publication highlights the achievements of the GEF since its inception, summarizes its current investment strategy, and begins to map the way forward for the next phase of the GEF.

The issue of living modified organisms (lmos) figured prominently at a recent meeting of the countries signatory to the Cartagena Protocol for Biosafety. The meeting took 18 decisions on requirements for handling, transport and identification of lmos during trans-boundary movements. Risk assessment and liability were among other concerns addressed.

This article examines the divergent political responses to unplanned exposure to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Global South. Although scientific and domestic political considerations have some relevance to explaining different positions among developing countries, trade considerations appear to be a principal driver of GMO policy.

India s decision to ratify Cartagena Protocol evokes mixed response