New and continued efforts are needed to strengthen and extend the ambition of current national pledges to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to close the gap between the current global emissions pathway and a trajectory consistent with a 2°C target.

This paper, a contribution to the New Climate Economy project, examines how cities’ economic development strategies are likely to affect global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. City governments are increasingly taking an active role in economic development, working to attract and retain businesses.

Climate policy and analysis often focus on energy production and consumption, but seldom consider how energy transportation infrastructure shapes energy systems. US President Obama has recently brought these issues to the fore, stating that he would only approve the Keystone XL pipeline, connecting Canadian oil sands with US refineries and ports, if it ‘does not significantly exacerbate the problem of carbon pollution’. Here, we apply a simple model to understand the implications of the pipeline for greenhouse gas emissions as a function of any resulting increase in oil sands production.

At COP 17 in Durban, the Parties called for new market mechanisms, and more broadly, “various approaches, including markets” to “achieve a net decrease and/or avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions”.

This report examines the potential for trade to shift production to the lowest-emission locations and thus reduce overall emissions, and explores the viability of policy approaches to spur such a shift.

This paper explores the implications of a potential shift to low-carbon consumption in wealthy countries for the poorer countries where many goods are made, and looks at ways to minimise negative impacts. A growing body of research shows how shifts in consumer behaviour could lead to reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

International greenhouse gas offset credits from developing countries could play a major role in fulfilling developed countries’ emission reduction pledges under the Cancún Agreements, but there is great uncertainty about the future role of such offsets.

U.S. policymakers have relied on offsets from developing countries as a primary form of cost containment in proposed cap-and-trade legislation. These legislative proposals allow for emitters to use up to 1.5 billion tons CO2e of offsets from developing countries to meet their annual compliance obligations.

International cooperation is a cornerstone of efforts to combat climate change. The achievement of global climate change mitigation goals will require significant investment in emissions reduction in developing countries. International cooperation will be essential in providing the needed finance, capacity building, and technology transfer and development.